20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Sun Jul 01, 2018 11:38 pm

20180630 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

I've decided to pause movement through “The Knowledge” at this point, to spend some time considering the problem of securing potable water which meets the biochemical needs of human beings, animals and plants. These entities have evolved over millennia to depend upon the solutions produced by seeping rain water through soil and rock formations, or passing rain water or snow melt through rivers and streams lined with rocks from which the moving water removes

Most drinking water prepared in 2018 (as nearly as I can tell) takes surface water as input, although a few municipal water supplies draw ground water where it is available. Water treatment follows the general pattern laid out by Dr. Dartnell, which is directed toward removing harmful substances when that can be done, and rendering harmless those which cannot be removed. My interest is in discovering how pure water can be enhanced to meet the needs of humans and other creatures which have evolved to depend upon the mixtures delivered by natural springs, in particular. As Hydrogen increasingly becomes an energy carrier of choice for advanced societies, pure water will become available in proportion to its use.

Happily, there are a number of resources available to study for guidance in preparing health giving and sustaining potable water.

This posting is for June 30th.

Here is another reference which speaks to the problem of securing potable water. In this case, I started with NASA, and found that they had contracted with a company that specializes in chemical analysis of water. The Umpqua web site includes prices for chemical analysis services of a significant variety of kinds. Apparently Umpqua developed technology for filtering water on the Space Shuttle which was an improvement over earlier technology.

NASA publication dated 05.13.04

https://www.nasa.gov/missions/science/f_water.html

http://umpquaresearch.com/

Same as: http://www.urc.cc/

Begin Quotation from Home page:
    Umpqua Research Company (URC) is a small business that offers technical services in four primary areas: [1] Drinking Water and Environmental Analysis, [2] Air and Water Purification Related Engineering Services (including NASA Flight Hardware), [3] Research & Development, and [4] Materials Testing.  Our organization was founded in 1973 by David F. Putnam and Gerald V. Colombo. William F. Michalek currently serves as President.

End Quotation.

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In pages 84-88, Mr. Bessen opens Chapter 6: “How the Weavers Got Good Wages”

Continuing on page 86, Mr. Bessen cites examples of wages lagging behind new technology by decades.

Begin Quotation:
Economic historian Robert Allen has described the first six or seven decades of British Industrial Revolution as “Engel's Pause”.
End Quotation.

During this period Mr. Bessen reports that workers gained new skills to work with new technology, but their wages did not change.

However, after decades, wages did increase in both Britain and the United States.

Begin Quotation:
Most of the increase in wages came because the weavers were paid more for their skills.
End Quotation.

In 2018 in the United States, news reports indicate that there is a demand for workers which (apparently) cannot be met by individuals who are available in the population. Interestingly (to me at least) there is a significant need for truck drivers, but that work is difficult because of the long hours away from home, and the risk of accident or negative impact upon health. Truck driving positions may be at risk over the longer term, because manufacturers of trucking systems are working hard on developing self-driving vehicles. One possible direction that truck driving positions might take is teleoperation, so that self-driving vehicles can receive assistance over the wireless Internet if they request it, or if their planned route calls for occasional human supervision. In that case, truck supervisors might have an experience similar to military drone operators, who go to work in air conditioned vans, pull a shift, and then go home for a “normal” evening off.

Next week Mr. Bessen takes up: “Wages and Alternative Employment”

(th)
Last edited by tahanson43206 on Sun Jul 08, 2018 11:57 pm, edited 1 time in total.
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Sun Jul 08, 2018 11:55 pm

20180707 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

I've decided to pause movement through “The Knowledge” at this point, to spend some time considering the problem of securing potable water which meets the biochemical needs of human beings, animals and plants. These entities have evolved over millennia to depend upon the solutions produced by seeping rain water through soil and rock formations, or passing rain water or snow melt through rivers and streams lined with rocks from which the moving water removes

Most drinking water prepared in 2018 (as nearly as I can tell) takes surface water as input, although a few municipal water supplies draw ground water where it is available. Water treatment follows the general pattern laid out by Dr. Dartnell, which is directed toward removing harmful substances when that can be done, and rendering harmless those which cannot be removed. As an update to this paragraph, I would note that economics is a significant factor in large scale water processing for municipal use. My assumption is that ALL unwanted substances can be removed from water, but the cost of doing that is a factor in the management decision to kill microorganisms rather than to remove them. Hopefully ongoing work to develop more economical filtering methods will yield solutions which are both affordable and practical, so that water free of microorganisms can be delivered in municipal quantities without the addition of chlorine, for example. A particularly interesting line of inquiry is possible use of graphene to separate water molecules from a mixture. Apparently water molecules can pass through the chemically bonded Carbon atoms in a graphene sheet, while sodium chloride molecules are excluded. I would presume that any collections of molecules larger than sodium chloride would be excluded as well, so that water on the output side of a graphene membrane would be safe to drink.

From a practical point of view, I am wondering if a graphene sheet that has been used to filter water in this way would clog up with debris over time, and if that is the case, how it would be cleaned for future use.

That said, my current interest is in discovering how pure water can be enhanced to meet the needs of humans and other creatures which have evolved to depend upon the mixtures delivered by natural springs, in particular. As Hydrogen increasingly becomes an energy carrier of choice for advanced societies, pure water will become available in proportion to its use.

Happily, there are a number of resources available to study for guidance in preparing health giving and sustaining potable water.

This posting is for July 7th.

In the past week, I looked at the possibility of using light spectroscopy to determine of water is safe to drink. Google reveals a significant number of citations relating to this topic. Notes on resources found on or relating to this topic are appended below.

In the course of that investigation, I remembered that Forum Member DaveZ provides a link to blog sites where he has posted information on topics generally relating to his travels on land and sea. In one of those posts, DaveZ describes a misadventure with stream water that turned out to be contaminated with microorganisms. This anecdote supports Dr. Dartnell's advice in the current chapter to use a means of preparing surface water for use.

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In pages 89-95, Mr. Bessen discusses “Wages and Alternative Employment”

Begin Quotation on page 90:
The market for experienced weavers was limited in the 1830s because the pool of experienced workers living around Lowell was small and because neither operations nor training were standardized.
End Quotation.

Begin Quotation on page 95:
The deepening returns to experience, … demonstrate that weavers did, indeed, make bigger investments and earn bigger returns.
End Quotation

Next week Mr. Bessen takes up: “Technology and Jobs”

(th)

Appendix: Searches using Google for the use of spectroscopy to evaluate drinking water

2018/07/14 Notes for Knowledge forum update

© Royal Society of Chemistry 2018. Registered charity number 207890.

Begin Quotation:
Online Monitoring of Drinking Water with Optical Spectroscopy
C. Jaehn, M. Wagner, W. Schmidt and C. Moldaenke
The absence of contamination in drinking water is essential to protect public health. Online monitoring is a promising strategy to ensure a good drinking water quality. Online analysis techniques mainly cover physico‐chemical parameters e.g. pH‐value and turbidity. In comparison, the online detection of single contaminants is quite difficult and costly. A promising alternative is the rapid detection of abnormalities or changes in the water matrix by spectroscopic techniques such as absorbance or fluorescence (emission) spectroscopy.

End Quotation.


http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/ebook/978-1-84973-441-7


Water Contamination Emergencies: Managing the Threats

https://books.google.com/books?id=2HIoD ... &q&f=false

https://www.photonics.com/a25126/Spectr ... Techniques

https://www.photonics.com/a26915/FTIR_s ... _pathogens

begin Quotation:

The group plans to establish a spectral library of major food and waterborne pathogens and to evaluate other statistical analysis methods such as artificial neural networks for data analysis. The researchers are getting closer to commercialization of a test method for drinking water, but there is still a lot of work that needs to be done, Lin said.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Aug. 9, 2006, pp. 5749-5754.

End Quotation.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 5417306735

Assessment of drinking water quality at the tap using fluorescence spectroscopy

This document is available as a downloadable pdf.

Begin Quotation:
Abstract
Treated drinking water may become contaminated while travelling in the distribution system on the way to consumers. Elevated dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the tap relative to the water leaving the treatment plant is a potential indicator of contamination, and can be measured sensitively, inexpensively and potentially on-line via fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. Detecting elevated DOM requires potential contamination events to be distinguished from natural fluctuations in the system, but how much natural variation to expect in a stable distribution system is unknown. In this study, relationships between DOM optical properties, microbial indicator organisms and trace elements were investigated for households connected to a biologically-stable drinking water distribution system. Across the network, humic-like fluorescence intensities showed limited variation (RSD = 3.5–4.4%), with half of measured variation explained by interactions with copper. After accounting for quenching by copper, fluorescence provided a very stable background signal (RSD < 2.2%) against which a ∼2% infiltration of soil water would be detectable. Smaller infiltrations would be detectable in the case of contamination by sewage with a strong tryptophan-like fluorescence signal. These findings indicate that DOM fluorescence is a sensitive indicator of water quality changes in drinking water networks, as long as potential interferents are taken into account.

End Quotation.
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Sun Jul 15, 2018 11:35 pm

20180714 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

I've decided to pause movement through “The Knowledge” at this point, to spend some time considering the problem of securing potable water which meets the biochemical needs of human beings, animals and plants. These entities have evolved over millennia to depend upon the solutions produced by seeping rain water through soil and rock formations, or passing rain water or snow melt through rivers and streams lined with rocks from which the moving water removes

The direction I'd like to look is toward nanotechnology and (in this case) toward invention and development of molecular machines small enough to identify and secure molecules that are NOT water. Nature provides examples of the kind of machine this would be. Molecular machines have evolved to be able to make their way into cells and to make a living there. A “dynamic water filter” system would enlist the services of molecular machines able to identify molecules which are NOT water, to secure them in some way, and to transport them to some desired destination.

Energy would be required to accomplish this, and photons would seem worth considering as a mechanism for energy delivery to molecular machines.

While Dr. Dartnell's focus on Page 38 is securing of drinkable water for an individual or a small group, I am thinking about the ongoing and persistent problem of polluted fresh water flowing along rivers into lakes. The example of the State of Ohio's inability to effectively address the problem of inefficient application of nutrients to agricultural land shows that a solution is needed that does not require anyone to do anything that might cost them money or time. The problem is the perennial one of the Commons. In this case, I am thinking of the fresh water lakes in Ohio, including Lake Erie. No one who is delivering nutrients to the lakes via run off from their fields wants to be asked to make the investments of time or money that would be needed to prevent nutrients from entering the Lake.

The community as a whole might be willing to make an investment to prevent nutrients from entering the various lakes, but there is (at present) no mechanism capable of clearing water flowing through the various rivers that feed Lake Erie, so the problem continues unabated.

For the problem of Dr. Dartnell's individual or small group, I am imagining a container of water to be cleaned, and one which contains a collection of water clearing nanomachines. The water to be cleaned would be poured into the machine filled container, at a rate appropriate to the capabilities of the collection. The output from the activity of the machines would be pure water molecules, and molecules of various kinds identified and sorted by the nanomachines, and delivered to suitable output collection points.

For a river in today's world, the situation would be quite different. As is done with today's municipal water supplies, gates of decreasing cross section would collect debris carried along in the river for processing as appropriate. However, past that point, a stretch of water would be given over to a population of nanomachines to look for and to secure molecules which are NOT water.

Update on 2018/07/23: MIT Researchers appear to have developed tiny robots powered by photons. According to the article at this link, size is on the order of a human egg:
https://www.yahoo.com/finance/news/rese ... 30504.html

This posting is for July 14th.

In the week starting on the 14th, the local newspaper included articles on the subject of wages:

On July 16th, the Opinion page ran a two column editorial discussing a practice of seven fast-food chains, to prevent employees from securing more pay by moving between franchise locations. A legal action in the State of Washington led to the decision of seven companies to remove “no-poach” clauses from their franchise agreements. The editorial concludes:

Begin Quotation:
A healthy consumer economy depends on everyone being able to participate and having incentive to succeed. It can't be based on paying workers at the bottom as little as possible and keeping them their permanently.
End Quotation.

I note that the editorial does not appear to object to paying workers as little as possible. Apparently it is only the “permanent” aspect of the sanctioned practices that the editorial board found distasteful.

On July 18th, on page B11 of the Columbus Dispatch, Jeff Stein of The Washington Post reported:
“Fed chief concerned wages aren't growing”

Since Mr. Bessen is writing about periods when wages remained flat for extended periods in American history, I can't help wondering if factors Mr. Bessen described are at work today.

Begin Quotation of Federal Reserve Board Chair Jerome Powell:
“We want an economy that works for everyone,” (…) “In the last five years or so, labor share of profits has been sideways. This is very much akin to the flattening out of medium incomes the last few decades.”
End Quotation.

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In pages 95-98, Mr. Bessen discusses “Technology and Jobs”

Begin Quotation on page 98:
The key point is that in a competitive economy, the effect of technology on jobs depends on demand.
End Quotation.

Begin later Quotation on Page 98:
What also matters is much technology increases demand, by reducing prices, improving quality, or adding new product features.
End Quotation.

On July 21st, CSPAN broadcast an interview with the author of a book on the future of work ….

Title: The End of Work
Author: John Tamny

Mr. Tamny appears to be remarkably optimistic about the impact which robots will have on the economy of the United States, and (I presume) of the world at large.

When the interviewer expressed concern that a robot might take his job, Mr. Tamny said that the interviewer should hope that would happen, because the interviewer would then be freed to pursue activity which is important or meaningful to him. I took this with a grain of salt, since (in my estimation) the interviewer was probably ALREADY acting at the peak level of his interest and capabilities, but for many workers in the economy of 2018, that is certainly not the case.

Mr. Tamny reminded the audience that only 150 years or so ago, most people devoted their lives to the growing of food for themselves and their neighbors. In the years since, primitive robots have taken on the vast majority of the tasks involved in raising food for the population, and the millions of people freed of agricultural labor have gone on to specialize in ways which contributed to the productivity of the nation as a whole.

Next week Mr. Bessen takes up: “Technology and Globalization”

(th)
Last edited by tahanson43206 on Mon Jul 23, 2018 11:49 pm, edited 1 time in total.
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Jul 23, 2018 1:54 am

20180721 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

I've decided to pause movement through “The Knowledge” at this point, to spend some time considering the problem of securing potable water which meets the biochemical needs of human beings, animals and plants. These entities have evolved over millennia to depend upon the solutions produced by seeping rain water through soil and rock formations, or passing rain water or snow melt through rivers and streams lined with rocks from which the moving water removes

The local newspaper ran two stories about water which I'd like to take up. However, since Dr. Dartnell's next topic is food, I'd like to call attention to the article by Beth Burger which appeared in the Columbus Dispatch on July 23rd, 2018, on page A1:
Title: Convention center grows food indoors.

There have been reports in recent years of experiments to produce food indoors at locations around the world. Examples include “vertical farms” which are constructed in urban settings, where fresh produce can be delivered to customers with an immediacy not possible otherwise. My impression is that these experiments have become more practical as lighting technology has advanced, so that the electromagnetic spectrum needed by plants can be delivered with increasing efficiency. In the article by Beth Burger, we find:

Begin Quotation:
Bright LED lights in white, red and blue hues gradually glide on a slide track and shine on three doubled(sic)-sided 8-foot towers.
End Quotation.

And later:
Begin Quotation:
Just 75 feet away, the leafy greens and herbs are used in the convention center's kitchen.
End Quotation.

The URL for the article is:

Returning to the current theme from Dr. Dartnell's book, we have two reports of continuing problems with contaminated water in Michigan, and one of failures of a community water supply system in Ohio.

From the Associated Press: Title: Flint neglecting water-crisis funds, state says

A photograph accompanying the article is labeled:
Begin Quotation:
A worker completes a new copper water line to a house on Friday after lead water pipes were replaced in Flint, Mich.
Paul Sancya
End quotation.

https://www.apnews.com/162a0fa306724c30a9cb6ddf28bed89d

In another article on the same page (A4) of the Columbus Dispatch (date not available):
Begin Quotation:
A June report by the Department of Health and Human Services' toxicology office said the PFAS family of chemicals is more toxic than previously believed, …
End Quotation.

https://www.upi.com/Delayed-HHS-report- ... 529531567/

On page B1 of The Columbus Dispatch (date not available) we find:
Title: Waterlines failing in hamlet of Mount Air
By Andrew Atkins

http://www.dispatch.com/news/20180727/w ... nty-hamlet

Begin Quotation:
A well-based water system was introduced in the 1960s. Water is pumped from two wells into a shed, where it is treated and sent into the community through a system of PVC piping that isn't rated for high pressure well use, Kunze said.
End Quotation.

Laura Kunze is described as a Sharon Township trustee.

The direction I am looking is toward a system of dynamic filtering of water, capable of deployment for a single home or a mobile facility such as a travel trailer or pleasure water craft, all the way up to deployment for an entire river such as the Mississippi River, in the United States.

The report of research at MIT that features small robots, on the order of size of a mammal egg cell, encourages me to think that a swarm of small robots might be deployed to a volume of contaminated water to find the non-water molecules and deliver them securely to appropriate collection points.

The swarm of mobile robots might be supplemented by robots in fixed positions along walls holding the water, or fins projecting into it (from top, bottom or side) which would likewise be programmed to identify molecules of interest, to secure the non-water molecules, and deliver them to suitable collection points.

Ideally, this system of dynamic filtering would yield highly concentrated collections of various molecules which would have economic value. It is possible that the collected molecules might have sufficient economic value to support the delivery of uncontaminated water as the primary output of the system.

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In pages 98-99, Mr. Bessen discusses “Technology and Globalization”

Begin Quotation on page 98:
Technology has another effect on jobs. It facilitates globalization, especially when technical knowledge becomes highly standardized.
End Quotation.

Begin later Quotation on Page 99:
This (globalization) led to significant American job losses in both the textile and apparel industries, but not until almost a century after the basic technology was exported around the globe.
End Quotation.

Next week Mr. Bessen takes up: “Learning from History”

For some time I have been watching for signs that the growth of the Internet will lead to increased used of remote direction of machinery, to increase the employment possibilities for individuals around the world. Examples exist, of remote operation of mining machinery, and certainly remote operation of military equipment.

(th)
Last edited by tahanson43206 on Sun Jul 29, 2018 11:56 pm, edited 1 time in total.
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Sun Jul 29, 2018 11:07 pm

20180728 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

I've decided to pause movement through “The Knowledge” at this point, to spend some time considering the problem of securing potable water which meets the biochemical needs of human beings, animals and plants. These entities have evolved over millennia to depend upon the solutions produced by seeping rain water through soil and rock formations, or passing rain water or snow melt through rivers and streams lined with rocks from which the moving water removes

In an earlier weekly update, I described a “dynamic” water filter, which would use active elements to find and remove non-water molecules from a volume of water.

In an expansive illustration of how this technology would be used, I described clean-up of a river loaded with silt and other materials from upstream. While there is a great need for such a system in the world of 2018, a much less ambitious goal would be to keep a volume of comparatively clean water clean. What I am thinking about is a cistern which collects and holds runoff from a roof of a house or a building. The problem to be addressed is the contamination of rain water with debris which lands on the surface of the roof between rains. A passive filter would remain an important component, for objects such as leaves, but the active filter would be helpful to address contamination caused by animals which travel over the roof and leave their waste products behind.

I am envisioning two levels of active filter for this application … the first would involve a first stage filter into which runoff would flow. Non-water molecules would be present in abundance, so most filter and removal activity would take place here. However, water molecules passed over to a clean water holding container would never-the-less need to be constantly searched for non-water molecules.

It should be noted that some non-water molecules are needed when water is to be used for consumption by humans, animals or plants, so the selection nanomachines need to be capable of differentiating between useful molecules and non-useful ones. At this point, and pending further incoming knowledge, I am under the impression that no molecule that contains carbon is useful in this context.

>>> On 2018/08/02, the Yahoo News Feed contained an article about discovery of an Asian Carp in waters between the electric barriers designed to keep such fish out of Lake Michigan, and Lake Michigan itself. The article covered the history and current status of the encroachment of Asian Carp on inland United States waterways, and the threat posed to the Great Lakes if they manage to establish a foothold there. However, for the purposes of THIS thread, a detail about the invasion of the Great Lakes by mussels caught my eye. Aside from the economic impact of unlimited growth of mussels on water intakes for machinery (as just one example), there appears to be one definite benefit of this self-reproducing life form. According to the article, in certain areas it has been observed that mussels consume the debris floating (in a suspended state) in the water, so that the water becomes clear.

It occurred to me just now that a potential food source for mussels might be the algae that has been growing in various fresh water lakes in the United States in recent years.

Aside from that however, I am interested in the “example from nature” of what a mobile water filtering system might look like. From what I am able to glean from a scattering of inputs about the function of mussels to clean fresh water, I assume that the collected material has to go somewhere, because the purpose of ingesting the material in the first place is to find food. But if the water becomes clear due to the food ingestion process of mussels, then the waste must be deposited as solid material, rather than returned to the water as fine particles.

It turns out that some serious research has been performed in this field! In answer to the question about “waste must be deposited”, for example, it turns out (according to a report on mussels observed in Lake Michigan) the “solid waste” are called feces, and they become part of the muck at the bottom of a lake. The water clears up due to the activity of the mussels, sunlight reaches down to the level where the feces are, and another variety of algae is created.

A feature of at least one of the references cited below is use of floating rafts to provide rope scaffolding for mussels, which are suspended in fresh or brackish water. It would be helpful to know if the output of the mussels is collected or if it simply joins the water column.

>>> References here:


https://news.stanford.edu/news/2014/aug ... 81214.html


https://e360.yale.edu/features/how_muss ... led_waters


https://www.livescience.com/47453-under ... clams.html

In a different area of focus, an Opinion column by Jim Simon, published in the Columbus Dispatch on August 3, 2018 offers perspective on the value of study of history. Dr. Dartnell does not discuss schools, universities or education in the first edition of “The Knowledge”. However, it seems to me that any individual or group hoping to survive after a catastrophe would benefit by allocating some time to thinking about the securing and propagation of knowledge, including knowledge of the behavior of human beings over millennia.

>>> Reference here:

http://www.dispatch.com/opinion/2018080 ... l-thinking

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In pages 99-100, Mr. Bessen discusses “Learning from History”

Page 100:
Begin Quotation:
Weaving technology took over most of the tasks that humans performed on the looms, yet the number of jobs increased for 100 years, thanks to growing demand for cotton cloth.
End Quotation.

Next week Mr. Bessen takes up Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

(th)
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Sun Aug 05, 2018 11:14 pm

20180804 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

I've decided to pause movement through “The Knowledge” at this point, to spend some time considering the problem of securing potable water which meets the biochemical needs of human beings, animals and plants. These entities have evolved over millennia to depend upon the solutions produced by seeping rain water through soil and rock formations, or passing rain water or snow melt through rivers and streams lined with rocks from which the moving water removes

In an earlier weekly update, I described a “dynamic” water filter, which would use active elements to find and remove non-water molecules from a volume of water.

Last week, the ability of mussels to filter water was brought into discussion. This example from nature shows a direction to look for nanomachine solutions to the problem of filtering water to remove unwanted molecules. In the natural example, it was noted that the feces of mussels are excreted in the vicinity of the mussels, and the excreted material can itself contribute to contamination of the water.

Now taking the natural example as a starting point, I'd like to imagine what a preferred solution might look like.

Taking a mussel as a starting point, I am imagining a structure that takes in water, examines individual molecules, and separates them into those which are acceptable for potable water, and those which are not. The acceptable molecules would be returned to the environment, while the unacceptable molecules would be sequestered in a holding tank in the structure. When the holding tank is full, the entity would release itself from the framework to which it had been attached and float to the surface of the body of water in which it is immersed. At the surface, skimmers would collect filter entities so they can release the contents of their holding tanks into a larger holding tank which would ultimately be emptied for disposition in the outside world. Upon release of their collections of molecules, the filter entities would replenish any supplies they might need, and then sink back into the pool to “look” for a free attachment point in the framework of the pool.

My thinking at the moment is that these filter entities would draw power from the framework, instead of consuming energy supplying chemical feedstocks as natural mussels do. In a natural body of water, there is likely to exist a substantial proportion of feedstocks for mussels, but the goal of the dynamic filter system in description here is to yield potable water that does NOT contain any carbon at all, or other chemicals that might supply energy to the filter entities.

>>>>

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In page 101, Mr. Bessen takes up Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

Page 101:
Begin Quotation:
At a large distribution center north of Boston, a robot lifts a shelf holding merchandise and navigates it through the warehouse to the workstation of an employee who then picks the item needed for an order and places it in a shipping box.
End Quotation.

Next week Mr. Bessen resumes Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

>>>>

Over the years science fiction writers have imagined a wide variety of space ships to transport their characters from one place to another in the Universe, or at least in the Solar System. Because these imagined ships have been incidental to the plot for the most part, the writers have often tossed off little observations by the characters about various aspects of the built environment. In general, however, my recollection from seeing a number of these fictional accounts is that writers tend to expect the ships to provide every convenience and creature comfort that might be imagined for human beings and other beings.

Because Dr. Dartnell's “The Knowledge” brings the reader face to face with the challenge of surviving, let along enjoying comfort, I am looking for opportunities to flesh out the details of how the imagined ships of science fiction might actually work.

At the same time, there are practical minded scientists and engineers designing and building space ships and related equipment for missions that can be accomplished with today's technology and understanding of physics and chemistry. My expectation is that the practical efforts around the world will tend toward the goals envisioned by the writers.

A title for a potential book is: Matter Management for Small Spacecraft

The search in these postings for a solution to the problem of filtering water for human consumption is an example of the kind of activity that should yield a practical space habitat for comfortable human occupation in the fullness of time.

(th)
Last edited by tahanson43206 on Wed Aug 15, 2018 3:33 pm, edited 1 time in total.
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Aug 13, 2018 12:04 am

20180811 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

I've decided to pause movement through “The Knowledge” at this point, to spend some time considering the problem of securing potable water which meets the biochemical needs of human beings, animals and plants. These entities have evolved over millennia to depend upon the solutions produced by seeping rain water through soil and rock formations, or passing rain water or snow melt through rivers and streams lined with rocks from which the moving water removes

In an earlier weekly update, I described a “dynamic” water filter, which would use active elements to find and remove non-water molecules from a volume of water.

Last week, this section began description of a robotic version of a mussel, to filter water to remove undesirable molecules. Desirable molecules include water of course, but numerous other molecules identified by researchers as necessary or helpful for human beings, other animals and plants. Undesirable molecules include any containing carbon, any radioactive ones, and any molecules otherwise not on the desirable list.

My thinking last week was that these filter entities would draw power from the framework, instead of consuming energy supplying chemical feedstocks as natural mussels do. In a natural body of water, there is likely to exist a substantial proportion of feedstocks for mussels, but the goal of the dynamic filter system in description here is to yield potable water that does NOT contain any carbon at all, or other chemicals that might supply energy to the filter entities.

This week, an article appeared in the news feed about use of spectroscopic analysis to detect molecules of various kinds in the atmospheres of planets circling distant stars. This article reminded me that a useful mechanism for examining molecules for sorting purposes is spectroscopic analysis. If a body of water is illuminated with radiation then the interaction of that radiation with molecules suspended in the water could provide useful information for sorting. In addition, such radiation might serve as a way to replenish energy consumed by the molecule sorting robots.

>>>>

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In page 101, Mr. Bessen takes up Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

Page 102:
Begin Quotation:
Surprisingly, the managers … report that they can't hire enough workers, at least not enough workers who have the necessary skills to deal with new technology.
End Quotation.

Next week Mr. Bessen continues Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

>>>>


(th)
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Sun Aug 19, 2018 11:25 pm

20180818 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

I've decided to pause movement through “The Knowledge” at this point, to spend some time considering the problem of securing potable water which meets the biochemical needs of human beings, animals and plants. These entities have evolved over millennia to depend upon the solutions produced by seeping rain water through soil and rock formations, or passing rain water or snow melt through rivers and streams lined with rocks from which the moving water removes

In an earlier weekly update, I described a “dynamic” water filter, which would use active elements to find and remove non-water molecules from a volume of water.

Last week, this section introduced the idea of delivering radiation (such as visible light) into the body of water to be treated, as a source of information for identification of molecules to be selected for capture, and for delivery of power to the nanomachines.

This week my intention is to conclude the pause to consider the problem of securing a reliable, consistent supply of healthy drinking water, using technology that does not exist at present, but which natural systems show is feasible.

Mussels demonstrate that it is possible for small packages of molecules to filter fresh or brackish water, and to make a living from some of the useful molecules which are filtered.

I am looking for design and manufacture of small packages of molecules which perform a very similar function, by filtering water, capturing molecules which are not desirable for potable water, and passing through desirable molecules.

Unlike living mussels, these systems would have mobility so that when they have filled their collection containers, they will rise to the surface of the body of water in which they are immersed, to be scooped up so their collections can be delivered to a larger collection reservoir. The filter systems could pass through remediation services on their way back to their duty stations, so that any wear and tear can be identified and corrected, or if necessary, routed to a separate location for disassembly and eventual remanufacture.

It would make sense for these systems to be able to draw energy from materials scavenged from the water if that is possible in a given situation, but it seems to me that two primary sources of energy for these systems would be electrical ports in the body of water, delivered via fins or wall surfaces, and radiation delivered into the water from above or conceivably from light sources inside the water body.

The challenge of performing a final verification of the suitability of the processed water can be met with a dynamic filter wall at the output end of the water body.

Here the filter structures would filter as before, but this time their output would be accepted molecules passed along to the outside world. In this case, any undesirable molecules would be returned to the water body instead of collected.

The intent here is to develop a water solution management solution which can be replicated anywhere on Earth, in any needed capacity, or anywhere else that water must be managed to support human habitation. While the described solution does not exist today, except as a natural demonstration, I am imagining a capability to process water for a family or even an individual which would be independent of the rest of the world, and thus suitable for Dr. Dartnell's scenario.

Next week I'll resume on page 33 of “The Knowledge” with the topic of FOOD.

>>>>

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In page 101, Mr. Bessen takes up Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

In pages 102-104, Mr. Bessen introduces two views of the impact of robots/machines on society, replacement (of people) and displacement (of people)

In a newly published compact book by Mark P. Mills, “Work in the Age of Robots”, Mr. Mills develops a third view which differs from the either/or proposition described by Mr. Bessen. On page 72 of Mr. Mills' piece, he says:

Begin Quotation:
But in end there will be more, not less, work in the age of robots.
End Quotation

In the pages leading to this conclusion, Mr. Mills advances the proposition that the key for success in the coming age is the increased productivity of individual human beings. He gives many examples, but I would cite the Google Search Engine from my own experience as a force multiplier, compared to physical visits to libraries in prior decades.

Next week Mr. Bessen continues Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

>>>>


(th)
Last edited by tahanson43206 on Tue Aug 28, 2018 4:27 am, edited 1 time in total.
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Aug 27, 2018 1:58 am

20180825 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

While the pause to consider water is concluded, as new information arrives I'll add it in this section.

In particular, I'll be looking for announcements of nano-scale machines to identify and collect molecules.

For this week, the focus is on the ease with which carbon dioxide molecules interact with water. An article about Global Warming described how carbon dioxide easily nestles into a collection of water molecules. A nano-scale machine to identify desirable molecules would (presumably) encounter a lot of carbon dioxide molecules.

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Food: Page 33

Recently the developing field of cultured meat appeared as a topic on the Internet news feeds.

The presentation was on the progress achieved in developing practical quantities of cultured meat, starting with a few muscle cells.

Such a system would seem (to me at least) to be highly attractive for use in a self-sustaining space habitat, or (for that matter) in countless situations on Earth where inadequate supplies of naturally grown food are present, such as refugee camps or similar sites where people are gathered without the means to sustain themselves, let alone contribute to the global economy.

In a (somewhat) related development, NASA has recently announced a competition to find ways to take in Carbon Dioxide molecules and to create useful molecules as precursors for a wide variety of products. An example of generating glucose was cited.

Begin Quotation:
https://www.yahoo.com/news/nasa-pay-750 ... 28634.html

To start, NASA is asking teams to focus on converting CO2 to Glucose, but the language of the challenge suggests you can approach that goal from any angle you wish:

Help us discover ways to develop novel synthesis technologies that use carbon dioxide (CO2) as the sole carbon source to generate molecules that can be used to manufacture a variety of products, including “substrates” for use in microbial bioreactors. Because CO2 is readily abundant within the Martian atmosphere, such technologies will translate into in-situ manufacturing of products to enable humans to live and thrive on the planet, and also be implemented on Earth by using both waste and atmospheric CO2 as a resource.
End Quotation.

In this week's post, I'd like to note the potential for the cultured meat technology to be extended to vegetables, so that an isolated space habitat (or Earth-side one) could generate edible material with the desirable characteristics of vegetables, such as cellulose for bulk.

Next week will continue on page 33 of “The Knowledge” with the topic of FOOD.

>>>>

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In page 101, Mr. Bessen takes up Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

In pages 104-105, Mr. Bessen develops two views of the impact of robots/machines on society, replacement (of people) and displacement (of people)

Begin Quotation from page 105:
But achieving that future depends critically on putting in place the policies that will encourage broad-based development of new skills.
End Quotation.

In the United States (and apparently many other cultures) education of children is supported and directed at a local level, with some (usually limited) participated by groupings such as states. The “normal” situation (appears to me to be) that poor communities provide poor educations, which tend to lead to poor achievement by the adults who come out of those situations.

Next week Mr. Bessen continues Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

>>>>


(th)
Last edited by tahanson43206 on Mon Sep 03, 2018 8:30 pm, edited 1 time in total.
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160208 Vision Author Culture on Knowledge Forum

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Sep 03, 2018 12:26 am

20180901 Update Knowledge Forum Knowledge Thread

As a note of possible interest to any readers who might be thinking of applying for membership in this forum:
It has been established that the Signature Line of your pending membership can be used for communication.
I do not have a way (at present) to see who has logged in recently, but I can check the status of the newest member.
If you have applied for membership in the forum, and no one else has applied after you, then you will be listed as the newest member.
It is easy for me to check the newest member status, because the newest member is listed at the bottom of the main page.
It has been established that while an applicant is waiting for approval by the administrator, I can send Private Mail to the applicant.
It has been established that an applicant who receives Private Mail can reply via the Signature Line of the membership.
This is a curious way to communicate, I admit, but I am interested in hearing from applicants.
I would like to hear from anyone who would like to try the culture of self-directed knowledge accumulation I have tried to demonstrate.

Continuing with the weekly update:

Reference #1 Page 38 Paragraph 1

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Water

The paragraph that begins: “However, glass and...”, cautions to be aware that some materials block ultraviolet sunlight to kill microorganisms,

While the pause to consider water is concluded, as new information arrives I'll add it in this section.

In particular, I'll be looking for announcements of nano-scale machines to identify and collect molecules.
The only news item that I noticed this week, that relates even remotely to this section, was an article about use of a portable device to detect animal DNA.
The manufacturer was given as: Biomeme. The cost was given as $4,000.

https://biomeme.com

Biomeme Inc.
1015 Chestnut St, Suite 1401 
Philadelphia, PA 19107

The article was entitled: Detecting Animal DNA
August 21, 2018 By Alissa Widman Neese
The Columbus Dispatch

Begin Quotation from appft.uspto.gov
US Patent & Trademark Office

[Help] [Home] [Boolean Search] [Manual] [Number Search] [PTDLs]

Searching AppFT Database...

Results of Search in AppFT Database for:
AN/biomeme: 2 applications.
Hits 1 through 2 out of 2

AN/biomeme
PUB. APP. NO. Title
1 20150126724 SAMPLE EXTRACTION AND PREPARATION DEVICE
2 20140206412 ANALYTIC DEVICE
End Quotation.

Chapter: The Grace Period
Section: Food: Page 38

Pages 38-41 briefly summarize the possibilities for drawing sustenance from a supermarket. Later on, Dr. Dartnell will consider restarting agriculture in depth.

I am interested in the ongoing discussions in the NewMars forum, and in particular consideration of self-sufficiency of the population, including food production.

However, looking further into the future (as science fiction authors often do), it seems likely to me that solutions will be found to the challenge of generating sequences of carbohydrate molecules suitable for human and animal consumption using a nano-scale assembly system.

On page 40, Dr. Dartnell reminds us of the need to take in an adequate supply of vitamins and fiber.

A small space ship (or any small habitation that will not be resupplied, whether on Earth or elsewhere) will need to be able to recycle all molecules that are used by living creatures. While biological solutions have worked themselves out over millennia on Earth, I am looking for non-biological solutions that yield the sequences of molecules that can deliver sustenance to humans and animals directly, or that can be delivered to biological intermediaries such as fish and plants.

Next week will continue on page 41 of “The Knowledge” with the topic of FUEL.


>>>>

In Reference #3, below, Mr. Bessen begins Part II, with a focus on Wages.

In page 101, Mr. Bessen takes up Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

In pages 105-106, Mr. Bessen considers: “Are Robots Stealing Our Jobs?”

Begin Quotation from page 106 (speaking of travel ticket agents):
And even here, computer technology did not really replace human labor; it just transferred labor from airline employees to airline customers.
End Quotation.

I would note that gas station attendants have been similarly affected by automation, in that the customer is now doing the work.

Next week Mr. Bessen continues Chapter 7: “The Transition Today: Scarce Skills, Not Scarce Jobs”

>>>>


(th)
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 519
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

PreviousNext

Return to New members

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest

cron