20160413 Variations on a theme of Adam Smith

Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Book 1 Chapter 10 Part 1

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Jun 27, 2016 3:52 am

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 1 Chapter 10 “Of Wages and Profit in the Different Employments of Labour and Stock”
Part 1 “Inequalities arising from the Nature of the Employments themselves”

In Part 1 of this chapter, Smith discusses various kinds of employment, and offers observations which I find recognizable 240 years later.

In our time of 2016, it seems to me that the need for what Smith calls “common labor” is decreasing in developed countries, and that as robotic systems become more and more capable, the need for common labor will decrease until it exists only as recreation enjoyed for its own sake, and not as a way of earning an income.

Smith seems to have recognized the importance of invention in advancing the state of art of various “manufactures” as he calls them, but I do not get the impression his countrymen were faced with the pace of change of technology which is expected in the current time.

He notes the wage earning potential of education and experience leading to designation of a worker as “skilled labour”. At Smith's time, apparently apprenticeship existed at a cruder state than seems to be the case today. It is my impression that apprenticeship does not exist at all in the United States, except that certain Labor Unions provide for a gradual increase of skill through a combination of class room instruction and on-the-job training with experienced workers.

Part 1 of this chapter considers the importance of trust in setting wages, and spends some time considering various kinds of risks.

Part 1 closes with discussion of the situation of workers who are unable to secure full time employment for an entire year, and embark upon a variety of part time activities in order to supplement their incomes. This circumstance seems to be similar to the increase of part time employment in the United States of 2016, and to the rise of new kinds of activities made possible by the development of the Internet, and universal availability of powerful computing devices packaged as telephones with wireless connectivity.

It seems to me that the growth of Internet mediated short term employment is not different from the kind of on call labor that exists around the world as day laborers are selected by employers from those who present themselves as available at gathering places.

A key difference exists between group mediated employment in on call situations, and individual employment. Examples of group mediated employment in on call situations abound in the economy of 2016. Taxi drivers are provided vehicles and administrative support, and in return the drivers stand ready to provide transportation to travelers whose arrival is unplanned and effectively random.

Restaurants, retail establishments, banks and a myriad other businesses provide secure income flows and suitable working environment to workers who stand ready to assist unscheduled customers.

Group mediated employment operates on a longer time scale in many businesses. I am thinking here of projects that take weeks or months or even years to complete. Smith mentions a number of activities in his time that sound similar, in the context of describing employment that varies in duration and availability, but Smith's discussion here revolves around wages, which are higher when work is infrequent, because the workers must sustain themselves between gigs.

Smith closes Part 1 with discussion of what he calls “stock” in the context of rental of rooms in a house in London as a way of adding to family income. This reminds me of the growth of an Internet mediated business that is growing in favor in 2016, involving rental of homes or rooms to visitors, as an alternative to rental of hotel or motel rooms.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
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Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Book 1 Chapter 10 Part 2

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Jul 04, 2016 11:50 pm

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 1 Chapter 10 “Of Wages and Profit in the Different Employments of Labour and Stock”
Part 2 “Inequalities Occasioned by the Policy of Europe”

In Part 2 of this chapter, Smith discusses a variety of examples of restriction of free exchange of labor, or artificial supply of particular skill sets which has the effect of reducing wages for practitioners.

My sense of the economy of 2016 in the United States is that we are free of most of the practices which Smith disapproves. However, it seems to me that we lack an effective and humane way of matching available workers with potential employment opportunities.

Part 2 closes with discussion of public welfare, and particularly of efforts to try to assign responsibility for support of the indigent to geographic areas. In the United States at least, the national government seems to be partially effective at insuring survival of indigent persons, but it is noteworthy that support depends significantly upon the wellbeing of localities where indigent persons reside.

It is difficult (for me at least) to envision how exchange of labor will occur in isolated communities which might occur as humans venture away from Earth and the Solar System. It seems to me reasonable to suppose that much if not most of responsibility for supply of energy and material structures required by such communities will be borne by automated systems. The great intellectual capabilities needed by human workers who interact with and maintain these systems would surely not occur in every birth. Just as with the human economy on Earth in 2016, there would be need to find useful activity for the part of the population unable to effectively interact with the automated systems.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
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Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Chapter 10 Addendum

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Jul 11, 2016 6:36 pm

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 1 Chapter 10 “Of Wages and Profit in the Different Employments of Labour and Stock”
Addendum regarding modification of IPO practice in the United States

The purpose of this post is to describe a modification of the practice of Initial Public Offering of stock in companies which are going public, with the purpose of insuring that the United States adopts capitalism as the fundamental economic principle upon which the nation is organized.

The proposal is to authorize, create and require a class of stock that (might) not have voting privileges, but which would receive dividends when dividends are issued. This stock would be issued to all US citizens alive on the day of the IPO, at the rate of one stock per citizen.

The stock could then be sold by the citizen to whom it was awarded, except that persons under the age of 21 would NOT take possession of the stock until they had reached their majority.

The benefit of this modification to standard IPO practice is that it would cost nothing to anyone at the time of the IPO.

The purpose of an IPO is to raise funds for growth of a corporation beyond its current state. The modifications proposed here would NOT interfere with or hinder the raising of funds at the Initial Public Offering, but they would instead be designed to insure a steady flow of new funds for the corporation far into the future.

The benefit of this modification to standard IPO practice would accumulate over time, as the value of the issued stock increases over time. More importantly, every US citizen would become a stock holder.

These stock would be offered in a manner similar to employee stock offerings, which are designed to reward employees with potential future income when they convert the stock.

In this case, while the stock value would grow as a function of normal movement of stock price in the open market, the holder of the stock would be given the option of buying the stock at the original IPO price, whenever the stock is released for this purpose by the company, and the holder decides to take the opportunity.

At that point, the share becomes a “real” share, which the holder can either sell or hold.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
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Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Book 1 Chapter 11 Prologue

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Jul 18, 2016 8:31 pm

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 1 Chapter 11 “Of the Rent of Land” Prologue

The purpose of this post is to note the short introduction of Adam Smith's discussion of rent of land. Chapter 11 contains three Parts and a long Digression on variations of the price of silver over time.

In 2016, rent of land remains a substantial part of economic activity. However, it seems to me that rent of property is far more visible to the average person than might have been true in Smith's time. Today we have rent of vehicles of all kinds, short term rental of housing of all kinds, short term rental of tools and furniture and (I suspect) many other categories of property.

In this preface, Smith announces his intention to discuss rent of land in three ways.

The first Part will consider “Produce of Land which always affords Rent”

The second Part will consider situations in which the productivity of land may or may not provide a rent.

The third Part will consider how improvement of land impacts it's ability to support rent.

In 2016, as the human race contemplates expansion out into the Solar System and then beyond, it seems to me that the concept of “land” upon which Smith concentrates in his time is supplemented by new “place” concepts.

Settlements on planets such as Mars will still consider “land” as sites for habitation, and perhaps as sites for agriculture and manufacturing. However, aside from planetary surfaces independent habitats will (I feel sure) come to provide “place” independent of “land” as Smith would have found familiar.

At the same time, there is a significant possibility that habitats will be constructed for deployment on the oceans of Earth as precursor for habitats which may be deployed in the atmosphere of Venus or similar planets whose characteristics are not agreeable for humans or other Earth based creatures.

Having said that, it seems likely to me that the concepts Smith will be exploring will have some applicability to the new environments which humans will be creating in the years to come.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
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Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Book 1 Chapter 11 Part 1

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Jul 25, 2016 6:49 pm

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 1 Chapter 11 Part 1 “Produce of Land which always affords Rent”

In returning to this chapter I am hoping to answer three questions:
a. Does Smith's argument hold up for his time, viewed 240 years hence
b. Does Smith's argument hold up for the era of 2016
c. Does Smith's argument hold up for future directions human kind may take.

A summary of Part 1 is given by Smith, as he opens Part 2:

Begin quotation:
Human food seems to be the only produce of land which always and necessarily affords some rent to the landlord.
End quotation.

In answer to question 1 then, I am satisfied that with his consideration of corn, cattle, grass, rice, wine, wheat, oats and potatoes, and incidental reference to additional vegetables cultivated for human consumption, Smith has made a reasonable case in support of his theme.

In 2016, it seems to me that the argument still holds, although in this time the range of produce available for distribution to customers is far greater than was true in Smith's time.

Looking toward the future, it seems to me that artificial “land” will become more common. Even today, examples of successful hydroponic and aquaponic operations exist, and trials are underway of what are called “vertical gardens” in which banks of plants are stacked in urban towers and fed with artificial lighting, ample supplies of fresh water, and the appropriate nutrients to sustain crops without waste.

Away from Earth, I foresee allocation of “land” for production of oxygen above and beyond the production of plant material for food. On Earth, oxygen production seems (to me) to primarily a function of algae-like creatures in the open ocean. Away from Earth, a variety of oxygen producing activities will “produce rent” for “owners” of such “land” as may be created out of the environment.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 324
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Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Book 1 Chapter 11 Part 2

Postby tahanson43206 » Tue Aug 02, 2016 3:33 am

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 1 Chapter 11 Part 2 “Produce of Land which sometimes does, and sometimes does not, afford Rent”

In returning to this chapter I am hoping to answer three questions:
a. Does Smith's argument hold up for his time, viewed 240 years hence
b. Does Smith's argument hold up for the era of 2016
c. Does Smith's argument hold up for future directions human kind may take.

Part 2 begins with this assertion:
Begin Quotation:
After food, cloathing and lodging are the two great wants of mankind.
End Quotation.

From the perspective of 2016, I find this summary of human needs to be insufficient.

Abraham Maslow published the paper which first exposed his concept of a Hierarchy of Needs in 1943. It seems to me that Adam Smith was properly focused upon the lowest level of Maslow's Hierarchy, in his attempt to understand the economy of his time, and the human behaviors which had led to it. Looking out at the United States of 2016, I think I am seeing a deficiency, not of supply of basic needs, but supply (for lack of a better word) of higher order needs.

Of these unmet needs, I think I am glimpsing the “need to be needed”.

The concept of a “job” in this society (it seems to me) encapsulates a structure within which a person can pretend to be needed, even if the tasks to be completed are of a rudimentary nature.

In Smith's day, starvation was a very real threat, so people at the lower levels of society were unlikely to be overly concerned with higher level needs as as Maslow's “self actualization”.

Part 2 of Chapter 11 contains several gems of Smith's observation.

One of these is found on page 188:
Begin Quotation:
But when by the improvement and cultivation of land the labour of one family can provide food for two, the labour of half the society becomes sufficient to provide food for the whole. The other half, therefore, or at least the greater part of them, can be employed in providing other things, or in satisfying the other wants and fancies of mankind.
End Quotation.

In the United States of 2016, a figure of 2% of the population is often estimated as providing food for the entire population, as well as for export to consumers in other nations. Thus, by Smith's reasoning, it might be presumed that 98% of the population are either entirely unemployed, or employed in making and distributing “wants and fancies”.

A topic of current conversation in the middle of 2016, is the lack of “jobs” for people who want them, but for whom there are no jobs available that match the combination of their skills, education, aptitude, attitude and location.

In Part 2 of Chapter 11, Smith considers mines as having fertility and situation. It is the combination of these characteristics, compared to the most fertile mines with the best situation, that determines whether they are work working. It seems to me that something similar is happening in these times, if people can be compared to mines of Smith's day.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
Posts: 324
Joined: Sun Jun 07, 2015 3:38 pm

Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Book 1 Chapter 11 Part 3

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Aug 08, 2016 6:25 pm

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 1 Chapter 11 Part 3 “Of the Variations ...” (essentially a study of inflation)

In returning to this chapter I am hoping to answer three questions:
a. Does Smith's argument hold up for his time, viewed 240 years hence
b. Does Smith's argument hold up for the era of 2016
c. Does Smith's argument hold up for future directions human kind may take.

Part 3 of this chapter begins with a short exposition of:
Begin Quotation:
... three combinations of events which can happen in the progress of improvement; …
End Quotation.

The greater part of Part 3 consists of an exhaustive study of inflation with respect to silver.

Looking ahead to a time not far distant, when communities are either in progress toward eventual settlement of distant solar systems, or already established, my sense is that advances of technology to include reliable supply of nuclear power, and assembly of structures at the atomic level, will provide a perspective on relative values of atom types that differs significantly from Smith's time.

Even in 2016, it seems to me that the properties of various atoms in construction of advanced electronic devices are recognized as giving much greater value to these atom types than is given to either gold or silver. Looking forward, it seems to me that communities heading out from Earth to distant locations will need to stock up on atoms of every type as much as possible, because there is no way to know today what remarkable uses might be found for any of them.

Likewise, the choice of destination would (it seems to be) be somewhat influenced by the relative abundances of various atom types that can be deduced from radiation detected from those potential destinations.

Ultimately, I would not be surprised if understanding of nuclear physics advances to the point that transmutations of one atom type to another will be routine, so that any new design communicated between remote locations can be readily fabricated from available stocks of atoms, supplemented by transmutation where needed to complete the assembly.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
tahanson43206
 
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Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Book 1 Chapter 11 Conclusion

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Aug 15, 2016 6:40 pm

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 1 Chapter 11 Conclusion

In returning to this chapter I am hoping to answer three questions:
a. Does Smith's argument hold up for his time, viewed 240 years hence
b. Does Smith's argument hold up for the era of 2016
c. Does Smith's argument hold up for future directions human kind may take.

The four page conclusion of Chapter 11 contains multiple nuggets of insight.

In Smith's time, land appears to me to have played a greater role in the economy than it does now, in 2016. It seems to me as well, that owners of productive land today are not in control of their fates as they might have been in Smith's time. It seems to me implicit in Smith's study of agriculture, that land owners were able to replant each year from the proceeds of the previous year, but in 2016, land owners appear to me to be dependent upon lenders for seed, for fertilizer, and for fuel needed to set the crop and to bring it in, if weather permits.

Wage earners of Smith's time appear to me to have been regarded as uneducated and unlikely to be able to understand the economic forces impinging upon them, but it seems to me likely that wage earners in 2016 are likely to be reasonably well educated and reasonably well informed.

The people Smith identifies as living by profit appear to me to have gained a significant ascendency in 2016. At the same time, it seems to me the entity of the “corporation” has become a much more significant player than was true in Smith's time, when the concept was only recently invented and deployed with success in overseas trade and development of overseas resources.

From Smith's earlier chapters, I got the impression death by starvation was so common as not to be remarkable. At the same time, Smith describes what appear to be early attempts to try to meet the needs of unemployed people and families, but I got the impression those attempts were crude and not reliable for many.

In 2016, it seems to me that many residents of the United States are struggling with the flows of global capitalism, which leaves people without employment as automation grows in importance, and as people in less developed nations assume responsibility for production at lower cost.

There are some politicians who express a desire to provide financial support for workers who are released by corporations which move over seas, and at the same time, there are a majority of politicians who refuse to pay such support.

The result of the denial of financial support for displaced workers appears to me to be a discontent with the status quo that is leading to a level of political upheaval the United States has not seen for several decades.

A solution may exist such that capitalism itself can be enlisted to provide support for displaced workers.

In addition, perhaps if students were incorporated and conducted IPO's to raise funds for higher education, the specter of debt could be reduced.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
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Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Book 2 Introduction

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Aug 22, 2016 5:54 pm

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 2 Introduction

Mr. Smith opens Book II with a three page introduction.

The theme for Book II is: “Of the Nature, Accumulation, and Employment of Stock”

The introduction to this Book opens with a reprise of a description of what Mr. Smith calls “that rude state of society in which there is no division of labour, ...”

This opening paragraph inspires me to consider the situation of a family able to enjoy a standard of living which would be considered comfortable in 2016 on Earth, but located away from Earth, and able to communicate via electromagnetic signals (of whatever frequency works best) with the Earth and with other similarly situated groups or individuals away from Earth.

While Book 2 is dedicated to consideration of stock in the time when Smith lived, it seems to me that the “stock” of an away-from-Earth family, group or individual is going to consist of matter in the vicinity, energy availability, and the combination of machines and machine supported knowledge that are available.

The “economy” of the human diaspora would consist of digital transmissions between groups including the Earth, and the local economy which each group creates to meet the required needs and optional desires of the population.

This is a good time to draw attention to the unfortunate but necessary requirement for distrust of digital communications. The experience on Earth of the perversion of the generous impulses which created an open Internet shows that evil may and probably will find expression over the communications pathways between groups.

A much needed and very likely category of digital exchange would be designs for objects to be assembled by atom assemblers. However, recipients of such transmissions will surely pass the file through an examination process to confirm that the instructions will produce what is described in the heading, and not something else.

Sad experience tells us that even simple entertainment or information transmissions must be examined carefully before they are accepted into the local distribution network.

In the weeks ahead, Mr. Smith promises five chapters for consideration of stock in his time. I'll be watching for any insights that may apply to the present time, or to the time when humans are either living or traveling away from Earth.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
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Re: 20160413 Adam Smith Book 2 Chapter 1

Postby tahanson43206 » Mon Aug 29, 2016 6:20 pm

2016/06/26 Knowledge Forum
Thread: Adam Smith “The Wealth of Nations”
Book 2 Chapter 1 “Of the Division of Stock”

Mr. Smith opens this chapter with a paragraph which sets forth his view of the condition of the “labouring poor” of his time, and as he says, “in all countries”.

It seems to me, 240 years later, that almost nothing has changed, for people in most of the world.

However, in the United States and a few European countries, leaders and the people themselves, have brought about significant changes in support of comfortable living after prime earning years have ended, or indeed, in support of minimal living before or during prime earning years.

The concept of “pensions” was known in Smith's time. The word is referenced twice in “Wealth”, and indeed, one of those references is in this chapter. My impression is that the “pension” represented by what is called “Social Security” in the United States in 2016 amounts to a distribution from a store of “stock” in the wealth of the Nation as a whole.

If a “Basic Income” can be achieved, it would (presumably) arise from the same resource.

Saudi Arabia has for some time provided what amounts to a “basic income” for members of the Saudi family, so that they do not have to work for a living, but there are questions if this state of affairs has been beneficial for the recipients. In any case, Saudi Arabia most assuredly has NOT been providing a basic income to the many non-native workers who are present in the country.

Venezuela is an example of a country which has attempted to distribute the means of subsistence to residents of the country, and (apparently) this effort was somewhat successful while oil prices remained high, but conditions in that country have deteriorated badly since oil prices fell dramatically on the global market, and since most of the private industry in that country has been eliminated.

Smith points out earlier in “Wealth”, that a country can support legions of non-productive citizens as long as the productivity of those who are frugal and industrious generate sufficient goods and services to permit the practice to continue.

In this chapter, Smith sets forth three categories of capital: consumption, fixed and circulating.

From my present vantage point, 240 years later, it seems to me that Smith's argument holds up well.

Since my interest in the present study is to try to envision how an economy might exist in a digital form among dispersed galactic communities, while Smith's division of capital will (presumably) operate in the remote locations as they did on Earth in Smith's time, the circulating component will (presumably) exist in digital form, as intellectual property exchanged between communities, or simply shared between communities without expectation of gain.

Where I hope to end up over the course of these weekly ruminations is with a conclusion that the economy of the planet Earth of 2016 can support a class of distant communities with digital communications reflecting the greater variety of capability of the larger population, while at the same time providing a large and ready market for digital communications from the smaller populations, who may yet offer insights or achievements not occurring elsewhere.

(th)
May every member of The Knowledge forum grow financially, intellectually, socially and beyond.
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